GLOSSARY

ABCS

Army Battle Command System.

alliance

The result of formal agreements between two or more nations for broad, long term objectives. Alliances are technically combined organizations

Army Battle Command System

Migration of all fielded and developmental Army C2 systems into one fully integrated and interoperable system with seamless connectivity from the NCA to the foxhole

ASMP

Army Strategic Mobility Program

battle command

The art of decision making, leading, and motivating soldiers and their organizations into action to accomplish missions: includes visualizing current state and future state, then formulating concepts of operations to get from one to another at least cost; also includes assigning missions, prioritizing and allocating resources, selecting the critical time and place to act, and knowing how and when to make adjustments during the fight

battle dynamics

Five major interrelated dynamics that define significant areas of change from current operations to Force XXI Operations; dynamics are battle command, battlespace, depth and simultaneous attack, early entry, and combat service support

battlespace

Components of this space are determined by the maximum capabilities of friendly and enemy forces to acquire and dominate each other by fires and maneuver and in the electromagnetic spectrum

Blueprint of the Battlefield

(TRADOC Pam 11-9, 10 May 91) - A comprehensive, hierarchical listing of Army functions performed in support of the battlefield and their definitions; collectively includes three blueprints­one for each level of war: strategic, operational, and tactical

broadcast intelligence

Capability to rapidly "pull down" or broadcast accurate/real-time intelligence (all levels, even national level) to the lowest possible tactical level, precluding the layered procedural intelligence flow of information

C2

Command and control

C2W

Command and control warfare

C3I

Command, control, communications, and intelligence

C4I

Command, control, communications, computers and intelligence

coalition

An ad hoc agreement between two or more nations for a common action

combat service support

The essential logistics functions, activities, and tasks necessary to sustain all elements of an operating force in an area of operations

combined operation

An operation conducted by forces of two or more allied nations acting together to accomplish a single mission

command and control warfare

The integrated use of operations security, military deception, psychological operations, electronic warfare, and physical destruction mutually supported by intelligence to deny information to, to influence, or to degrade adversary C2 capabilities while protecting friendly C2 capabilities against such actions; C2W applies across the full range of military operations and all levels of war

conflict

The period characterized by confrontation and the need to engage in hostilities other than to secure objectives

core processes

The essential functions an organization must perform to accomplish its primary task

depth and simultaneous attack

The simultaneous application of combat power against an enemy throughout the depth and breadth of the battlefield; objective goes beyond defeating the enemy; objective is to accelerate enemy defeat

directed energy

A highly directional beam of concentrated electromagnetic energy; types of directed systems with highest potential are, laser, radio frequency, and particle beam

doctrine

Fundamental principles by which military forces guide their actions in support of national objectives; doctrine is authoritative but requires judgement in application

early entry operations

Operations involving the initial deploying forces; they occur whenever the missions require the projection of U.S. forces from CONUS or elsewhere

EMP

Electromagnetic pulse

electromagnetic pulse generators

A device used to generate electromagnetic radiation; the resulting electric and magnetic field may couple with electrical/electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges

electronic warfare

Military actions that include: electronic attack­the use of either electromagnetic or directed energy to degrade, neutralize, or destroy an enemy's combat capability; electronic protection­those actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare; electronic warfare support­those actions tasked by an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate sources of radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition

empty battlefield

Describes the perception that a soldier is virtually alone on the battlefield; describes the changed appearance of the battlefield when soldiers begin dispersing and seeking cover in response to increasing lethality of weapon systems

environmental operations

The use of environmental services (various combinations of scientific, technical and advisory activities) required to acquire, produce, and supply information on the past, present, and future states of space, atmospheric, oceanographic, and terrestrial surroundings for use in military planning and decision-making processes or to modify those surroundings to enhance military operations

force projection

The movement of military forces from CONUS or a theater in response to requirements of war or operations other than war; force-projection operations extend from mobilization and deployment of forces, to redeployment to CONUS or home theater, to subsequent demobilization

full-dimensional operations

The application of all capabilities available to an Army commander to accomplish his mission decisively and at the least cost across the full range of possible operations

hierarchical

Arranged in the standard military organization of units; characterized by a vertical hierarchy of information flow and decision making

host nation support

Civil and/or military assistance rendered by a nation to a foreign forces within its territory during peacetime, times of crisis, emergencies, or war; assistance provided during war based upon agreement mutually concluded between nations

HNS

Host nation support

Information Age

The future time period when social, cultural, and economic patterns will reflect the decentralized, nonhierarchical flow of information; contrast this to the more centralized, hierarchical social, cultural, and economic patterns that reflect the Industrial Age's mechanization of production systems

information carousels

Visualization of future system where commanders/ units can continually access/update a common data base of relevant information (for example, logistics, intelligence, movement)

information operations

Continuous combined arms operations that enable, enhance, and protect the commander's decision cycle and execution while influencing an opponent's; operations are accomplished through effective intelligence, command and control, and command and control warfare operations, supported by all available friendly information systems; battle command information operations are conducted across the full range of military operations

information warfare

Actions taken to preserve the integrity of one's own information system from exploitation, to corrupt or destroy an adversary's information system, and, in the process, to achieve an information advantage in the application of force

interagency

In this context, military operations conducted in conjunction with nonmilitary organizations: agencies of the U.S. Government, NGOs, and/or PVOs (also multiagency)

land warfare university

A comprehensive and rigorous Army education system for training and leader development; it encompasses all TRADOC education and training programs, institutions and systems; it is not only an Army- sponsored university but is also multiservice and multinational, supporting a wide variety of joint and international education programs; includes individual, unit, and institutional education and training

LSE

Logistics support element

modularity

A force design methodology that establishes a means to provide interchangeable, expandable, and tailorable force elements

MTR

Military technical revolution

multinational operations

A collective term to describe military actions conducted by forces of two or more nations typically organized within the structure of a coalition or alliance

NGO

Nongovernment organization

niche capability

Capability of a force to acquire selected, modern, sophisticated technology that could dominate the battlefield or battlespace, for example, a nuclear weapon or sophisticated air defense system

noncombat operations

Military operations other than war

nongovernment organization

Professional associations, foundations, multinational businesses, or other groups with an interest in improving the quality of life of people

nonhierarchical

Arranged in a nonstandard military organization of units; characterized by a horizontal flow of information and decision making

OOTW

Operations other than war

operations other than war

Military activities during peacetime and conflict that do not necessarily involve armed clashes between two organized forces

peace building

Postconflict actions, predominately diplomatic, that strengthen and rebuild civil infrastructure and institutions in order to avoid a relapse into conflict

peace enforcement

The application of military force or the threat of its use normally pursuant to international authorization to compel compliance with generally accepted resolutions or sanctions to maintain or restore peace and support diplomatic efforts to reach a long-term political settlement; primary purpose is restoration of peace under conditions broadly defined by the international community

peacekeeping

Neutral military or paramilitary operations undertaken with the consent of all major belligerents; designed to monitor and facilitate implementation of an existing truce and support diplomatic efforts to reach a long-term political settlement

peacemaking

A process of diplomacy, mediation, negotiation, or other forms of peaceful settlement that arranges ends to disputes and resolve issues that led to conflict

peace operations

Umbrella term that encompasses three types of activities: activities with a predominantly diplomatic lead (preventive diplomacy, peace building) and two complementary military activities­peacekeeping and peacemaking

PGM

Precision-guided missile/munitions

precision-guided missile/munitions

A munition capable of locating, identifying, and maneuvering to engage a point target with an accuracy sufficient to yield a high probability of destruction

PVO

Private voluntary organization

RMA

Revolution in military affairs

RSTA

Reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition

situational awareness

Ability to have accurate and real-time information of friendly, enemy, neutral, and noncombatant locations; a common, relevant picture of the battlefield scaled to specific level of interest and special needs

spectrum supremacy

Control over the required portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to enable the conduct of Force XXI Operations

spectrum of threats

Arrayed potential threats across a spectrum from simple to complex in scope, doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership, and soldiers

strap-on technologies

Available technologies used to upgrade/enhance existing weapon systems

tailorability

Capability to determine the right mix and sequencing of units with sufficient combat power to accomplish the mission and sustain the force, based on METT-T, analysis, and other criteria such as available lift, pre- positioned assets and host nation support

TSM

Threat spectrum model


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