APPENDIX D

Employment Of Obstacles And Mines

This appendix describes how to prepare obstacles in the five types of built-up areas.

DENSE, RANDOM CONSTRUCTION (TYPE A) and
CLOSED-ORDERLY BLOCK (TYPE B)

Antipersonnel Obstacles are constructed to block infantry approaches through or over:

Underground Systems are blocked by:

Exits from underground systems that would provide the enemy positions an advantage within or behind the defense are denied as indicated.

Figure D-1a Block Exits From Underground System

Figure D-1b Underground Obstacles

Street Antipersonnel Obstacles are constructed with antipersonnel mines, barbed tape/wire, boobytraps, and exploding flame devices.

Figure D-2a Claymore Mines.

Figure D-2b Wire Obstacles and Boobytraps.

Figure D-2c Flame Devices

Building Obstacles are constructed to deny enemy infantry covered routes or weapon positions in the proximity of defensive positions. They may be developed by destroying the building with explosives or flames, constructing wire obstacles within the building, using boobytraps, or preparing the building as an explosive/flame trap to be ignited after enemy forces have occupied it.

Figure D-3a Building Obstacle

Figure D-3b Explosive/Flame Trapped Building

Dead space obstacles are designed to inflict casualties and restrict infantry movement in areas concealed from observation and protected from direct fires.

Vehicle Obstacles. Enemy tanks, BMPs, and direct fire support weapons (artillery/AT guns) are restricted to streets. The following illustrations depict types of vehicle obstacles:

Figure D-4. Roof and Vehicle Obstacles

Figure D-5a Rubble Obstacle

Figure D-5b Cratered Road

Figure D-5c Concealed Explosive

Figure D-6a Crib Roadblock

Figure D-6b Steel Hedgehog

Figure D-6c Off-Route Mines

DISPERSED RESIDENTIAL AREA (TYPE C)

Obstacles in this area are constructed to reduce infantry mobility through houses, between houses, and in open areas. Barbed tape/wire and AP mines/boobytraps are the most effective antipersonnel obstacles in this area.

Antiarmor obstacles are designed to prevent armored vehicles from moving between houses and along streets. Street barriers will be of little use because of the relative ease of bypassing them. Antitank mines are the most effective vehicle obstacles in this area.

The figure below depicts types of antiarmor and antipersonnel obstacles that are suitable for this area.

Figure D-7. Use of Obstacles in Dispersed Residential Areas

HIGH-RISE AREA (TYPE D) and INDUSTRIAL/TRANSPORTATION AREA (TYPE E)

The open areas that are generally found in these areas will require hasty minefields similar to those recommended for high-rise areas.

The numerous open areas between widely spaced buildings will require significant labor and barrier materials. The most effective obstacle in this area will be hasty AT/AP minefields.

Figure D-7b Use of Obstacles in High-Rise Areas