Glossary


ACRONYMS and ABREVIATIONS:

ACC        area coordination center
AECA       Arms Export Control Act
AFM        Air Force manual
AFP        Air Force pamphlet
AFR        Air Force regulation
AIASA      Annual Integrated Assessment for Security Assistance
AO         area of operations
AOR        area of responsibility
AR         Army regulation
AT         antiterrorism
AWACS      airborne warning and control system

C2 command and control C3 command, control, and communications CA civil affairs CDR consolidated data report CIA Central Intelligence Agency CINC Commander-in-Chief CMO civil-military operations CS combat support CSS combat service support CT counterterrorism

DEA Drug Enforcement Agency DOD Department of Defense DOJ Department of Justice DSAA Defense Security Assistance Agency

ESF Economic Support Fund ETA Euskadi Ia Askatasuna

FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation FC US Army field circular FMLN Farabundo Marii National Liberation Front FID foreign internal defense FIDAF foreign internal defense augmentation force FM US Army field manual FMF foreign military financing FMS foreign military sales

HCA humanitarian and civic assistance HUMINT human intelligence

IDAD internal defense and development lED improvised explosive device IMET international military education and training

IPB intelligence preparation of the battlefield IRA Irish Republican Army

JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff JTF joint task force JTTP joint tactics, techniques, and procedures

LIC low intensity conflict LOC lines of communication LOI letter of instruction

MAAG military assistance advisory group METT-T mission, enemy, terrain, time, and troops available MTT mobile training team

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NBC nuclear, biological, and chemical NCA National Command Authorities NCO noncommissioned officer NEO noncombatant evacuation operations NSC National Security Council

PA public affairs PLO Palestine Liberation Organization PRC populace and resources control PSYOP psychological operations

ROE rules of engagement

SAO security assistance organization SOF special operations forces SOFA status of forces agreement

TAFT technical assistance field team TAT technical assistance team TC US Army training circular TF task force TOR terms of reference TRADOC US Army Training and Doctrine Command

US United States USAID United States Agency for International Development USIA United States Information Agency USIS United States Information Service USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics UW unconventional warfare

WPR War Powers Resolution

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

Airlift commander: The airlift commander coordinates and directs
activities of the airlift control element during noncombatant
evacuation operations. The airlift commander is responsible to the
evacuation force commander, and coordinates all actions with the
ground force commander and representatives of the US diplomatic
mission in the affected area.

Annual Integrated Assessment of Security Assistance: Report submitted by the US diplomatic mission which, in addition to an assessment of the host country's capabilities, contains recommended and projected levels of security assistance. Also called AIASA.

antiterrorism: See combatting terrorism.

area coordination center: See coordination center(s).

area coordination group: A composite organization, including representatives of local military, paramilitary, and other governmental agencies and their US counterparts, responsible for planning and coordinating internal defense and development operations. (JCS Pub 1-O2)

border operations: Operations designed to deny infiltration or exfiltration of insurgent personnel and materiel across international boundaries.

campaign plan: A plan for a series of related military operations aimed to accomplish a common objective, normally within a given time and space. (JCS Pub 1-O2)

civil affairs: Those phases of the activities of a commander which embrace the relationship between the military forces and civil authorities and people in a friendly country or area or occupied country or area when military forces are present. (JCS Pub 1-02) Also called CA.

civil-military operations: Military efforts to support resistance auxiliary organization development, undermine government claims, gain support for an insurgent government, and attain national objectives without fighting. Civil-military operations are basic to any insurgency program. Successful civil-military operations increase civilian support to resistance organizations and improve US intelligence and logistical support to the resistance organization. Also called CMO.

civil war: A war between factions of the same country; there are five criteria for international recognition of this status: the contestants must control territory, have a functioning government, enjoy some foreign recognition, have identifiable regular armed forces, and engage in major military operations.

close air support: Air action against hostile targets which are in close proximity to friendly forces and which require detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of those forces. (JCS Pub 1-02) Also called CAS.

coercion: The attempt to enforce desired behavior on individuals, groups, or governments.

combatting terrorism: Actions, including anti-terrorism (defensive measures taken to reduce vulnerability to terrorist acts) and counterterrorism (offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism) taken to oppose terrorism throughout the entire threat spectrum.

command and control: The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned forces in the accomplishment of the mission. Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission. (JCS Pub 1-02) Also called C2.

communications: A method or means of conveying information of any kind from one person or place to another. (JCS Pub 1-O2) consolidation operations: An operation organized in priority areas as an interdepartmental civil-military effort. Normally conducted at the state level, this operation integrates counterinsurgency programs designed to establish, maintain, or restore host nation governmental control of the population and the area and to provide an environment within which the economic, political, and social activities of the populace can be pursued and improved.

coordination center(s): The established operational locations from which area coordination groups conduct their activities. There is a single national-level center, supported by a number of specifically designated subnational or "area" centers which generally correspond to the number of political or administrative jurisdictions within the country. See also area coordination group.

counter-drug operations: See drug interdiction.

counterinsurgency: Those military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions taken by a government to defeat insurgency. (JCS Pub 1-02) counterintelligence: Those activities which are concerned with identifying and counteracting the threat to security posed by hostile intelligence services or organizations or by individuals engaged in espionage, sabotage, subversion or terrorism. (JCS Pub 1-O2)

countersubversion: That aspect of counterintelligence designed to detect, destroy, neutralize, or prevent subversive activities through the identification, exploitation, penetration, manipulation, deception, and repression of individuals, groups, or organizations conducting or suspected of conducting subversive activities. (JCS Pub 1-O2)

counterterrorism: See combatting terrorism.

country team: The executive committee of an embassy, headed by the chief of mission, and consisting of the principal representatives of the government departments and agencies present (for example, the Departments of State, Defense, Treasury, Commerce, and the USIA, USAID, DEA, and CIA.)

crisis: A crisis is an incident or situation involving a threat to the United States, its territories, citizens, military forces, and possessions or vital interests that develops rapidly and creates a condition of such diplomatic, economic, political, or military importance that commitment of US military forces and resources is contemplated to achieve national objectives.

crisis action procedures: Crisis action procedures define the process the Joint Chiefs of Staff, CINCs, services, and Department of Defense agencies use to develop timely recommendations and implement the decisions of the NCA concerning the deployment and employment of military forces. These procedures describe a logical sequence of events beginning with the recognition of the crisis and progressing through the employment of US military forces.

deception: Those measures designed to mislead the enemy by manipulation, distortion, or falsification of evidence to induce him to react in a manner prejudicial to his interests. (JCS Pub 1-O2)

deterrence: The prevention from action by fear of the consequences. Deterrence is a state of mind brought about by the existence of a credible threat of unacceptable counteraction. (JCS Pub 1-O2)

doctrine: Fundamental principles by which the military forces or elements thereof guide their actions in support of national objectives. It is authoritative but requires judgment in application. (JCS Pub 1-O2)

drug interdiction: Military or police action to prevent trafficking in illegal drugs; includes intelligence, surveillance, border patrol, inspections, raids, and other operations.

economic actions: The planned use of economic measures designed to influence the policies or actions of another state, e.g., to impair the war-making potential of a hostile power or to generate economic stability within a friendly power. (JCS Pub 1-02)

Economic Support Fund: Program by which economic assistance is provided on a loan or grant basis, to selected foreign governments having unique security problems. The funds are used to finance imports of commodities, capital, or technical assistance in accordance with terms of a bilateral agreement; counterpart funds thereby generated may be used as budgetary support. These funds enable a recipient government to devote more of its own resources to defense and security purposes than it otherwise could do without serious economic or political consequences. Also called ESF.

end state: The ultimate conditions resulting from a course of events.

foco: Foco (or Cuban model) insurgency is one in which a guerrilla band enters a rural area where it has never operated before with the hope of serving as an "insurrectional focus" for a larger rebellion.

force protection: A security program designed to protect soldiers, civilian employees, family members, facilities and equipment, in all locations and situations, accomplished through planned and integrated application of combatting terrorism, physical security, operations security, personal protective services, and supported by counterintelligence and other security programs.

foreign assistance: Assistance ranging from the sale of military equipment to donations of food and medical supplies to aid survivors of national and man-made disasters. US assistance takes three forms-development assistance, humanitarian assistance, and security assistance.

foreign internal defense: Participation by civilian and military agencies of a government in any of the action programs taken by another government to free and protect its society from subversion, lawlessness, and insurgency. Also called FID. See also internal defense. (JCS Pub 1-O2)

foreign internal defense augmentation force: A specially trained, area-oriented, partially language-qualified, ready force available to the commander of a unified command for the support of operations in situations short of open hostilities and in limited and general war. Foreign internal defense augmentation force organizations may vary in size and capabilities according to theater requirements. Also called FIDAF.

foreign military sales: That portion of US security assistance authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, as amended. This assistance differs from the Military Assistance Program and the International Military Education and Training Program in that the recipient provides reimbursement for defense articles and services transferred. (JCS Pub 1-O2) Also called FMS.

guerrilla warfare: Military and paramilitary operations conducted in enemy held or hostile territory by irregular, predominantly indigenous forces. See also unconventional warfare. (JCS Pub 1-O2) hasty attack: In land operations, an attack in which preparation time is traded for speed in order to exploit an opportunity. (JCS Pub 1-02)

host country: A nation in which representatives or organizations of another state are present because of government invitation and/or international agreement. (JCS Pub 1-02)

host nation: A nation which receives the forces and/or supplies of allied nations and/or NATO organizations to be located on, or operate in, or to transit through its territory. (JCS Pub 1-02)

human intelligence: A category of intelligence derived from information collected and provided by human sources. Also called HUMINT. (JCS Pub 1-02)

humanitarian assistance: Assistance provided by DOD forces, as directed by appropriate authority, in the aftermath of natural or man-made disasters to help reduce conditions that present a serious threat to life and property. Assistance provided by US forces is limited in scope and duration and is designed to supplement efforts of civilian authorities that have primary responsibility for providing such assistance. (JCS Pub 3-05)

improvised explosive device: Those devices placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating destructive, lethal, noxious, pyrotechnic or incendiary chemicals, designed to destroy, disfigure, distract or harass. They may incorporate military stores, but are normally devised from non-military components. Also called IED. (JCS Pub 1-O2)

indirect action: Military action in support of political, economic, and informational initiatives which are so dominant that they shape the form of the military action; military action through support of another party, such as security assistance to friendly foreign armed forces.

informational actions: Communication with a foreign government, its supporters, its opponents, and others to explain one's own policies and actions.

infrastructure: In an insurgency, the leadership organization and its system for command and control. In a broader sense, the systems of communications and the institutions which support the political and economic functions of a society.

insurgency: An organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a constituted government through use of subversion and armed conflict. (JCS Pub 1-02)

intelligence: The product resulting from the collection, processing, integration, analysis, evaluation and interpretation of available information concerning foreign countries or areas. (JCS Pub 1-O2)

internal defense and development strategy: The full range of measures taken by a nation to promote its growth and protect itself from subversion, lawlessness, and insurgency. Also called the IDAD strategy.

international military education and training: Formal or informal instruction provided to foreign military students, units, and forces on a nonreimbursable (grant) basis by offices or employees of the United States, contract technicians, and contractors. Instruction may include correspondence courses; technical, educational or informational publications; and media of all kinds. Also called IMET. (JCS Pub 1-02)

intimidation: The attempt to prevent an unwanted action by individuals, groups, or governments by the use of threats or by other means.

lead agency concept: The assignment of primary responsibility for a class of activity to one agency of government with assistance provided by and to other agencies.

LIC imperatives: Prerequisites for the successful prosecution of low intensity conflict; political dominance, unity of effort, adaptability, legitimacy, and perseverance.

logistics: The science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of forces. (JCS Pub 1-02)

low intensity conflict: Political-military confrontation between contending states or groups below conventional war and above the routine, peaceful competition among states. It frequently involves protracted struggles of competing principles and ideologies. Low intensity conflict ranges from subversion to the use of armed force. It is waged by a combination of means, employing political, economic, informational, and military instruments. Low intensity conflicts are often localized, generally in the Third World, but contain certain regional and global security implications. Also called LIC. (JCS Pub 1-02)

mandate: A commission, authorization, or charter of authority given to a person or organization to carry out specific responsibilities.

Marxist-Leninist ideology: A set of political beliefs generally based on the philosophy of Karl Marx, and V.I. Lenin, which relies on economic determinism to predict the inevitability of a revolution which will replace capitalism with rule by the proletariat (working class), and eliminate all private ownership of the means of production.

military assistance advisory group: A joint service group, normally under the military command of a commander of a unified command and representing the secretary of defense, which primarily administers the US military assistance planning and programming in the host country. Also called MAAG. See also security armistice organization. (JCS Pub 1-02)

military civic action: The use of preponderantly indigenous military forces on projects useful to the local populace at all levels in fields such as education, training, public works, agriculture, transportation, communications, health, and sanitation, and others contributing to economic and social development, which would also serve to improve the standing of the military forces with the population. (US forces may at times advise or engage in military civic actions in overseas areas.) (JCS Pub 1-02

mobile training team: One or more US personnel drawn from service resources and sent on temporary duty to a foreign nation to give instruction. The mission of the team is to provide, by training instructor personnel, a military service of the foreign nation with a self-training capability in a particular skill. (JCS Pub 1-02) Also called MTT.

mobilization: The process of bringing people and things together and preparing them for action; to assemble, organize, make ready for duty, to meet either the requirements of a national emergency or war or more limited social goals. In an insurgency, mobilization produces organization, leadership, skilled workers, and fighters; it raises money and acquires weapons, equipment, and supplies of all kinds. Mobilization grows out of popular dissatisfaction with existing conditions and occurs because of the appeal of programs to ameliorate them.

National Command Authorities: The President and the Secretary of Defense or their duly deputized alternates or successors. Commonly referred to as NCA. (JCS Pub 1-02)

neutralize: To render a thing ineffective or unusable; to render a person or group politically and militarily ineffective or irrelevant, by persuasion or coercion. operational categories: Groupings of methods of military operations in low intensity conflict, according to shared characteristics; they are: support for insurgency and counterinsurgency, combatting terrorism, peacekeeping operations, and peacetime contingency operations.

paramilitary forces: Forces or groups which are distinct from the regular armed forces of any country, but resembling them in organization, equipment, training, or mission. (JCS Pub 1-02)

peacekeeping operations: Military operations conducted with the consent of the belligerent parties to a conflict, to maintain a negotiated truce and to facilitate diplomatic resolution of a conflict between the belligerents.

peacemaking operations: A type of peacetime contingency operation intended to establish or restore peace and order through the use of force.

peacetime contingency operations: Politically sensitive military operations normally characterized by the short-term, rapid projection or employment of forces in conditions short of war.

players: Participants or active parties in a conflict.

political actions: Diplomacy; communication with a foreign government or group to persuade or compel it to support one's own policies, by means of argument, promises, and threats.

professional terrorists: Persons who earn their living by terrorism, with or without commitment to a political cause. They are frequently emotionally addicted to excitement, violence, and intrigue; ideology is not a dominating factor in their motivation.

propaganda: Any form of communication in support of national objectives designed to influence the opinions, emotions, attitudes, or behavior of any group in order to benefit the sponsor, either directly or indirectly. (JCS Pub 1-02)

psychological operations: Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign government, organizations, groups, and individuals. The purpose of psychological operations is to induce or reinforce attitudes and behavior favorable to the originator's objectives. Also called PSYOP. (JCS Pub 1-02)

raid: An operation, usually small scale, involving a swift penetration of hostile territory to secure information, confuse the enemy, or to destroy his installations. It ends with a planned withdrawal on completion of the assigned mission. (JCS Pub 1-02)

remote area operations: Government operations undertaken in contested areas to establish host nation strongholds. These areas may be populated by ethnic, religious, or other isolated minority groups; however, remote area operations may be conducted in areas devoid of civilian population and in which insurgent forces have established training areas, rest areas, logistical facilities, or command posts. The remote area tactical force should be composed mainly of personnel indigenous to the operational area.

resistance movement: An organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability. (JCS Pub 1-02)

routine, peaceful competition: The condition of relations among states in which each seeks to protect and advance its interests by political, economic, and informational means without employing violence.

security assistance: Group of programs authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, as amended, or other related statutes by which the United States provides defense articles, military training, and other defense-related services, by grant, credit, or cash sales, in furtherance of national policies and objectives. (JCS Pub 1-02)

security assistance organization: All DOD elements located in a foreign country with responsibilities for carrying out security assistance management functions. For example, military assistance advisory groups, military missions and groups, liaison groups, defense attache personnel and other groups which perform security assistance functions. Also called SAO.

strategic intelligence: Intelligence required for the formation of policy and military plans at national and international levels. Strategic intelligence and tactical intelligence differ primarily in level of application but may also vary in terms of scope and detail. (JCS Pub 1-02)

strike operations: Combat operations in zones under insurgent control or in contested zones. They are targeted against insurgent tactical forces and bases outside areas of government control. Other internal defense activities may support tactical forces during combat operations. Strike forces normally do not remain in the area of operations after mission accomplishment.

subversion: Action designed to undermine the military, economic, psychological or political strength of a regime. (JCS Pub 1-02)

surveillance: The systematic observation of aerospace, surface or subsurface areas, places, persons, or things by visual, aural, electronic, photographic, or other means. (JCS Pub 1-02)

tactical intelligence: Intelligence which is required for the planning and conduct of tactical operations. Tactical intelligence and strategic intelligence differ primarily in level of application but may also vary in terms of scope and detail. (JCS Pub 1-02)

tailor: To design the organization, strength, equipment, and methods to meet the requirements of a specific mission or situation.

terrorism: The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence against people or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies, often to achieve political, religious, or ideological objectives. (JCS Pub 1-02)

unconventional warfare: A broad spectrum of military and paramilitary operations conducted in enemy-held, enemy-controlled or politically sensitive territory. Unconventional warfare includes, but is not limited to, the interrelated fields of guerrilla warfare, evasion and escape, subversion, sabotage, and other operations of a low visibility, covert, or clandestine nature. These interrelated aspects of unconventional warfare may be prosecuted singly or collectively by predominantly indigenous personnel, usually supported and directed in varying degrees by an external source or sources during all conditions of war or peace. (JCS Pub 1-02) Also called UW.

urban area operations: Counterinsurgency operations in an urban environment characterized by close coordination between the armed forces, police forces, paramilitary forces, and other security forces for the protection of critical installations and control of subversive activities. Counterinsurgency operations in an urban area also may be part of a consolidation campaign or a continuing effort not specifically designated as a campaign.

vigilante group: A group organized without government authority to enforce its own concept of law and order or to advance its own interests outside the established process of law.