Foreign Assistance in Low Intensity Conflict
This appendix discusses US foreign assistance programs and the role they play in foreign internal defense. It stresses the special qualities required of US military personnel assigned foreign assistance and security assistance responsibilities. Foreign internal defense may be, conducted either unilaterally or through collective security arrangements with other supporting nations.
Military commanders must understand the political ramifications and complexity of military activities in LIC. The LIC-related tasks that commanders execute often evolve from foreign assistance programs. The activities within these programs range from disaster relief measures to economic and military assistance. It is important, therefore, to have an overview of US foreign assistance organizations and collective security agencies and their responsibilities.
The agencies that direct and coordinate US foreign assistance programs are--
The President has assigned the Secretary of State the authority and responsibility for the direction, coordination, and supervision of US interdepartmental activities overseas. This includes continuous supervision and direction of the overall foreign assistance program. Figure A-1 shows the major Department of State elements through which the Secretary of State exercises this responsibility. Elements responsible for security assistance functions are discussed under "Security Assistance Agencies" below.
The Inspector General of Foreign Assistance is responsible to the Secretary in matters relating to the effectiveness of US foreign assistance programs, Peace Corps programs, and Public Law 480 (Food for Peace) activities. The Inspector General's office inspects these programs, makes recommendations to the head of the agency concerned, and reviews any subsequent changes.
Five assistant secretaries direct the geographic bureaus responsible for US foreign affairs regional activities. They advise the Secretary of State on the formulation of US policies toward the countries within their jurisdictions. They also direct, coordinate, and supervise interdepartmental and interagency matters for these regions.
Country directors within each of the bureaus set policy guidelines for their assigned countries and coordinate outside their bureau for country-related issues. Country directors are the focal point for serving the needs of US diplomatic missions. They work closely with Department of State representatives overseas to administer and implement foreign assistance programs.
Figure A-1.Dept of State Organizations for Foreign Assistance.
Congress created the National Security Council in 1947 as a mechanism to advise the President with respect to the integration of domestic, foreign, and military policies relating to national security. Additional purposes of the NSC include making recommendations to the President on the basis of-
Congress subsequently amended the National Security Act of 1947 by directing the President to establish the Board for Low Intensity Conflict within the NSC. Composed of representatives from all key US government agencies, the board considers, formulates, recommends, and orchestrates US policy and strategy for LIC to and on behalf of the President.
The CIA coordinates the intelligence activities of other US departments and agencies in the interest of both collective and national security. The CIA--
United States Information Agency.
The USIA supports US foreign policy objectives by influencing public attitudes in other nations. It also advises the President, his representatives abroad, and various departments and agencies on the implications of foreign opinion for present and contemplated US policies, programs, and official statements. The USIA uses various media and methods to encourage constructive public support abroad for policy objectives, and to report the facts concerning hostile attempts to distort or frustrate US policies.
The United States Agency For International Development manages US developmental, humanitarian, and civic assistance activities. It supervises and gives general direction on all nonmilitary assistance programs under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, Public Law 480, and similar legislation. The USAID plans and implements overseas programs to improve economic and social conditions.
The USAID administers humanitarian and civic assistance programs in conjunction with the Department of Agriculture. Under arrangements made with USAID, US affiliates of international voluntary agencies conduct most of the food programs under Public Law 480. Although USAID is concerned primarily with developmental assistance and humanitarian and civic assistance, some of the programs it administers are security related. The USAID representative in the host nation fully coordinates these programs with the DOD representative.
The chief agencies involved in US security assistance activities are--
Department of State.
The Under Secretary of State for Security Assistance, Science, and Technology coordinates policy, plans, and programs of all departments and agencies involved in security assistance activities, including NSC, DOD, Department of State, USAID, CIA, Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Office of Management and Budget, and the Department of Treasury. Representatives of these agencies bring issues concerning security assistance to the attention of the primary decision makers. Decisions concerning funding levels for military assistance and military-related economic support are made by the Under Secretary of State, in agreement with the above-mentioned departments and agencies. Coordination encourages mutually supporting programs and increases the efficiency of the security assistance program. Although subordinate to the deputy secretary of state, he has direct access to the secretary of state for security assistance matters. The Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs also advises the secretary of state on issues and policy problems relating to defense and foreign policy. US diplomatic missions in allied and friendly countries develop and implement US collective security programs. The diplomatic chief leads the mission. He normally is a US ambassador and works under policy guidance and instructions from the Secretary of State.
The DOL assists selected countries in maintaining their internal security. The DOD aims to help these nations achieve a proper balance in their military capabilities to meet external and internal threats. Figure A-2 shows DOD organizations for security assistance.
The Department of Defense exercises its security assistance functions through the following staff organizations:
Figure A-2. DOD Organizations for Security Assistance.
The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy serves as the principal adviser and assistant to the Secretary of Defense for all matters concerned with the integration of DOD plans and policies into overall national security objectives. He exercises direction, authority, and control over the Defense Security Assistance Agency. The DSAA is a DOD agency. The DSAA--
The Joint Chiefs of Staff play a key role in the US security assistance effort. They assist in this effort through the joint planning process. Key JCS plans are the joint strategic planning document (with its supporting analysis), the, joint strategic capabilities plan, the joint security assistance memorandum, and the joint intelligence estimate for planning. In addition, the JCS continually review current and ongoing programs for specific countries and regions to ensure compatibility with US global security interests.
All military-related security assistance guidance, plans, and programs formulated at the national level are referred to the JCS for review. The JCS ensure that directives and communications pertaining to military assistance do not inadvertently circumvent or ignore force objectives, strategic concepts, and military plans. The JCS also fully coordinate program recommendations from SAOs and unified commands to ensure consistency with US global security plans.
The under secretary of state for security assistance, science, and technology chairs an interagency review committee, the Arms Transfer Management Group, which manages and coordinates security assistance matters. It includes representatives from agencies throughout the executive branch who deal in security assistance matters. It includes representatives from the NSC, DOD, JCS, Department of State; USAID, CIA, Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Office of Management and Budget, and the Department of the Treasury. These representatives bring issues concerning security assistance to the attention of primary decision makers. The group coordinates military assistance and military-related supporting assistance. This coordination encourages mutually supporting programs and increases their efficiency.
The CINC appoints a contact officer to represent his interests in each country. The contact officer works with both the diplomatic mission and the host nation military forces.
The role of the CINC is critical in LIC. He advises the JCS on significant events in his AO. His perspective is both regional, and country-specific. He focuses on the operational level of conflict. He identifies and applies necessary resources to achieve US strategic and foreign policy goals in his region. When employed properly and in a timely fashion, these resources minimize the likelihood of US combat involvement.
The service component commands participate in the security assistance planning process, especially in training matters. They have a large role in executing and managing all relevant programs.
The SAO manages DOD security assistance functions in a friendly or allied country. It oversees all foreign-based DOD elements in that country with security assistance responsibilities.
The SAO may be known in-country by any number of names according to the number of persons assigned, to the functions performed, or to the desires of the host nation. Typical SAO designations include "joint US military advisory group" and "joint US military group," "US military training mission," "defense field office," or "office of defense cooperation." In countries where the US has no SAO, another member of the mission has the responsibilities for security assistance; for example, the defense attache or a Foreign Service officer.
The SAO is a joint organization. Its chief is essentially responsible to three authorities: the ambassador (who heads up the country team and controls all US civilian and military personnel in country), the CINC of the unified command, and the director of the DSAA. The ambassador has operational control of the SAO for all matters affecting his diplomatic mission, including security assistance programs. Unified CINCs, on the other hand, command and supervise SAOs within their operational theaters in matters which are not the ambassador's responsibility.
The United States tailors each SAO to the needs of its host nation; for this reason, there is no typical or standard SAO organization. However, a large SAO normally has Army, Navy, and Air Force sections. Each of these is responsible for accomplishing its service portion of security assistance activities. A small SAO has divisions by function but no separate service sections. Figure A-3 depicts a SAO with service sections and one with a functional alignment.
The primary functions of security assistance personnel are logistics management, fiscal management, and contract administration of country security assistance programs. Security assistance personnel--
Figure A-3.Security Assistance Organizations.
The SAO can provide limited advisory and training assistance from its own resources. This assistance can, however, be expanded when the SAO is augmented by survey teams, MTTs, TAFTs, TATs, and other such teams and organizations placed under the direction and supervision of the local chief of the US diplomatic mission.
An MTT provides the host nation a self-training capability in a particular skill. It trains selected host nation personnel who then constitute an instructional base for continuing the training.
The programmed length of deployment of an MTT is for less than a six-month period. The MTT capabilities are mission-specific. Under most circumstances, the MTT operates directly under the control of an SAO. A specific command and control element accompanies the MTT when the mission requires it.
Documents describing SAO responsibilities and functions include DOD Directive 5132.3 and DOD Manual 5105.38. The directive provides broad guidance on the functions and responsibilities of the SAO. It constitutes the basic TOR for all DOD organizations assigned security assistance responsibilities. The manual sets forth responsibilities, policies, and procedures governing the administration of security assistance programs. It is the basic program management manual. DOD Directive 2055.3 prescribes requirements for the selection and training of security assistance personnel.
In addition to using these basic references, the chief, SAO, may draft supplemental instructions for a specific country. He coordinates them with the chief of mission, submits them to the unified commander and JCS for comment, and sends them to the DOD for approval.
Thus framed, these TOR provide guidance regarding the SAO's mission, command relationships, organization, administration, logistical support, and functions. The SAO may modify them as the requirements change.
Foreign internal defense augmentation forces can augment SAOs. They support operations in situations that range from conditions short of open hostility to limited or general war. They may locate strategically and vary in size and capabilities according to theater requirements. US military services may assign forces to the FIDAF from those already within the region, or from forces based in the United States.
The FIDAF consists of a headquarters element that may be joint or uniservice, as required. It also may include CA, PSYOP, combat, CS, and CSS elements tailored to requirements (see Figure A-4). Though limited in depth and sustainability, elements of the FIDAF can provide the government a wide range of advice and assistance on counterinsurgency activities and techniques.
The FIDAF headquarters element includes a CMO officer, who has staff responsibility for CA and PSYOP. The following are special staff element members--the surgeon, staff judge advocate, chemical officer, communications-electronics officer, engineer, public affairs officer, comptroller, and chaplain. Combat, CS, and CSS elements also provide special staff officers when they are assigned or attached to the FIDAF.
Figure A-4. Type of Foreign Internal Defense Augmentation Force
The CA unit of the FIDAF provides assistance and advice to US and host-nation officials, agencies, and military forces to strengthen the host nation's developmental posture. The CA unit reflects the requirements of the FIDAF.
The PSYOP unit provides training, advice, and operational assistance to other FIDAF elements and the host nation's military forces to strengthen the host nation's PSYOP programs. It also assists a SAO or US civil agency in the host nation. The specific requirements of the assistance operation determine the organization and numbers of teams.
The combat, CS, and CSS elements provide the remaining expertise and experience to advise, train, and assist the host nation's military combat units and staffs within the context of security assistance requirements. When specifically empowered by competent authority, CS elements may include military police sections.
Deployment considerations for the FIDAF rest on the concept of employing MTTs and small detachments to fulfill specific mission requests in a designated time period. Visits to the host nation by FIDAF representatives before deployment are beneficial; the representatives should request them whenever possible. Visiting personnel gather information concerning the anticipated mission, organization, concept of operations, control, and logistical support, including personal services available in the host nation. They do this to prepare the force adequately and to ensure its success upon arrival in country.
In most cases, the resources available to the SAO through US military or civilian agencies may be adequate to support small elements of the FIDAF with the administrative, legal, and health services they need; this requires proper coordination. Many of these services may draw on embassy assets and will require a Department of State support agreement.
Transportation and maintenance requirements also are important in planning. Using in-country transportation and other resources is preferable to establishing additional US support activities for short-term operations. After-action reports of prior MTT missions can assist other teams in the same area.
The flexibility of organization and the wide range of skills available in the FIDAF provide the CINC with forces to augment the capability of the SAO temporarily in a country faced with an externally supported insurgency. The FIDAF can repeatedly deploy its personnel into a country for short periods, providing advice, assistance, and continuity to specific, monitored programs. The CINC may locate the nucleus of the FIDAF out of country where administration, logistics, and planning and operations can support in-country efforts.
The role of the military departments resembles that of the regional component commands. The departments play an even larger role in the planning phase and in the execution of materiel-related programs. They develop, negotiate, and execute agreements. They provide advice on matters such as costs, availability, and lead time on military equipment and training. In this way, they ensure delivery of materiel and services. The departments also provide necessary resources and administrative support to move assets to recipients.
The US diplomatic mission to a host nation includes representatives of all US departments and agencies physically present in the country. The President gives the chief of the diplomatic mission, normally an ambassador, immediate "direction and control" over US in-country government personnel. This does not include personnel in another mission or those assigned to an international agency or to a unified CINC, including their subordinate elements. The in-country SAO is an exception to this latter rule.
The chief of mission ensures that all in-country activities best serve US interests as well as regional and international objectives. He promotes positive program direction by seeing that all activities are necessary, are efficiently and economically administered, and are effectively interrelated. The country team, illustrated in Figure A-5 is the chief of mission's major tool to fulfill these responsibilities.
The country team concept denotes the process of in-country, interdepartmental coordination among key members of the US diplomatic mission. This concept of embassy management developed in the early 1950s. In 1974, the term received its first official mention in Public Law 93-475.
Figure A-5. The Country Team.
The composition of a country team varies widely, depending on the desires of the chief of mission, on the in-country situation, and on the number and levels of US departments and agencies present. The principal military members of the country team are the defense attache and the chief of the SAO. Although a US area military commander (the CINC or his subordinate) is not a member of the diplomatic mission, he often participates in meetings of the country team.
The team coordinates many activities under the CINC's control because of their political and military implications. This coordination ensures continuity of effort and eliminates politically counterproductive initiatives.
The majority of US programs for developing nations are economic, political, and humanitarian in nature. Some foreign assistance, however, does take the form of selected military programs. How developing nations resolve their social, economic, political, and military problems influences the prospects for a stable world order. Ultimately, how the problems are resolved impacts--for good or ill--on the security and economic well-being of the United States.
The presence of a LIC situation does not determine the level or scope of foreign assistance to individual countries. Nevertheless, the programs discussed below provide the mechanisms through which the United States may render foreign assistance.
Selected nations receive US developmental assistance primarily for economic and social reasons. This assistance can result in improved security, and direct and immediate relief of human suffering. Humanitarian and civic assistance helps a nation's development as much as assistance in security matters. Developmental assistance programs are administered by USAID.
The progressive goals of developmental assistance are fundamentally long-term; they are achieved slowly. Developmental assistance can--
In this context, the United States can assist developing nations through developmental loans and technical assistance. Planners use these tools separately or in combinations.
Developmental loans finance the purchase of a wide range of commodities and related technical services that developing countries need for schools, clinics, irrigation works, and roads. The US government may make these loans or private banks may make them, with or without government guarantee. Developing countries repay the loans with interest. Interest rates charged to the borrowing country are lower than commercial rates; the United States often approves long-term credit agreements.
Technical assistance primarily affects people-their skills, their productivity, and the institutions they build and administer. It allows the people of developing countries to generate what they need for economic and social growth and modernization. Selfsustaining growth depends on the effective use of natural resources, capital facilities, and labor. Technical assistance speeds up the process by which people gain an education, learn skills, and develop positive attitudes so they can more effectively help themselves.
Humanitarian and civic assistance is another component of US foreign assistance. It basically consists of welfare and emergency relief.
The largest part of welfare support is in food programs for mothers and children. It also provides nutritional supplement programs for schools.
Disaster and emergency relief and refugee assistance make up the second largest category in this group. These programs have helped in emergency situations overseas ranging from natural disasters to war.
Elements of the DOD may participate in these programs on a case-by-case basis, in support of the responsible agency. Additionally, Title 10 of the US Code (Chapter 2 ) allows the DOD to conduct humanitarian and civic assistance activities along with military operations--in certain narrowly defined circumstances with prior approval of the Secretary of State.
US security assistance includes programs that assist friendly foreign countries to establish and maintain an adequate defense posture. The programs also help them to improve internal security and resist external aggression.
The basis for such assistance lies in the strategy of collective security, a national security policy which recognizes that the security and economic well-being of friendly foreign countries are essential to US security. Security assistance programs aid collective security. They help allied and friendly nations to resist aggression and contribute to national and regional stability.
Narrowly defined, security assistance is activity pursuant to a body of laws that authorizes and controls the entire process; for example, the Foreign Assistance Act and the Arms Export Control Act of 1976 and related amendments. Considered more properly as a strategic element, security assistance is a primary tool of US foreign policy. It has application across the spectrum of international competition. It is a bridge that links collective security with US friends and allies in times of peace and in times of crisis.
Operationally, in a LIC environment, security assistance is the principal US military instrument for most forms of support to friends and allies. However, its budgetary process in the narrow definition makes it largely a long-range preventive tool rather than a short-range reactive tool. The security assistance budget is a part of the Department of State (Program 150) foreign assistance budget. The budget planning cycle takes about two years to respond to new program requirements. Moreover, the general budgetary climate in which it evolves tends to be extremely limited. Due to these constraints the United States must usually engage in long-range programs of mutual defense planning with a friend or ally. Specific security assistance initiatives are especially effective in cases where the friend or ally already has a sound financial program for its own defense.
There-are limited, special emergency authorities in the Foreign Assistance Act and the AECA which the President may use in a crisis to speed up the budgetary process. Nevertheless, he uses them rarely and for relatively low levels of US government financing.
Security assistance includes selling or granting defense articles and services, training, and economic support in the form of loans or grants to offset the costs of maintaining armed forces. Specifically, security assistance provides allied and friendly military forces the equipment, spare parts, supporting materiel, and services that enhance their capability to deter aggression and to maintain internal security. It can provide training assistance to--
The United States will provide security assistance if threatened nations--
Grant aid terminates as soon as possible. Use of available credit programs makes transition to aid on a sales basis easier. Grant aid and credit resources focus on capital investment needs, with the receiving country assuming operating and maintenance costs. Development of assistance and self-help goals should reflect the current threats, risks, costs, resource constraints, and manpower limitations. This provides a realistic basis for the allocation of security-oriented resources. The economic consequences of military spending by supported nations will not impede their economic development.
When the United States provides security assistance to a host nation, a primary concern is the host nation's ability to plan and manage its defense resources by and for itself. Host nation military organizations may never develop this ability if they continue to request help when they no longer need it; that is, in areas where they have already achieved self-sufficiency.
The United States conducts five major security assistance programs, all of which fall under the control of the Department of State. The DOD administers two: International Military Education and Training (IMET), and foreign military financing (FMF), both cash and credit. The Department of State and USAID administer the remaining three programs: Economic Support Fund, peacekeeping operations, and commercial export sales. (See Glossary to compare and contrast characteristics of these programs.)
The IMET program provides instruction and training to foreign military and qualifying civilian personnel either in the United States or overseas on a grant-aid basis. It improves the ability of friendly foreign countries to use their own resources and to operate and maintain equipment acquired from the United States.
IMET helps countries develop greater self-reliance and improves their training capabilities. The training promotes rapport between the armed forces of foreign nations and US armed forces. It fosters a better understanding of the United States including its people, its political system, its institutions, and the policies and objectives by which it pursues world peace and human rights. IMET encompasses--
The FMF program enables foreign governments and international organizations to purchase defense articles, services, and training through DOD with their own financial resources. The program also includes supply and support arrangements that provide materiel, supply, and maintenance support to foreign customers for their US-made military purchases. Foreign military construction sales involve the sale of design and construction services to eligible purchasers.
The Special Defense Acquisition Fund enhances the US government's ability to meet urgent foreign needs for military equipment, while minimizing adverse impacts on US readiness. It finances the acquisition of defense articles and services in anticipation of authorized FMS cash or loan purchases. While the fund is limited in scope, it can shorten the lead time of selected items; for example, infantry equipment and tactical radios. The DSAA manages this fund.
Under normal procedures prescribed by the AECA, payment for FMS must be in advance of equipment delivery or performance of services. The President may defer the repayment date until 60 days after delivery (without interest being charged to the foreign country). He even may extend the deadline to 120 days after delivery provided he requests a special appropriation from Congress. These authorities are used only in rare circumstances.
The FMS financing program provides credit and loan guarantees to eligible foreign governments for the purchase of defense articles, services, and training. The United States recognizes the advantages in encouraging foreign governments to use direct credit or guaranteed loans to meet their defense needs. It makes an effort to obtain loans at less than market interest rates for countries that cannot afford the market rates.
The United States evaluates all FMS activities in the context of their impact on social and economic development programs in recipient countries and for their impact on regional arms races. In accordance with its policies, the United States approves sales to countries or international organizations to improve internal security, self-defense, or civic action, or to improve regional collective security agreements. It is US policy not to sell materials and services to governments that deny fundamental rights or social progress to their people. The President may waive these restrictions in extreme circumstances when this is necessary for US security.
The ESF program promotes economic or political stability in areas where the United States has special security interests; for example, when the United States determines that economic assistance is useful in securing peace or averting economic or political crises. The ESF enables recipient nations to devote more of their own resources to security purposes than would otherwise be possible without serious economic or political consequences.
The ESF provides economic aid in the form of loans or grants for a variety of economic purposes including balance of payment support, economic infrastructure projects, and health, education, agriculture, and family planning needs. ESF funds cannot be used to purchase military hardware or military training. When recipient nations attain reasonable political and economic stability, the United States shifts from the ESF to normal developmental assistance programs.
The peacekeeping program provides that portion of security assistance devoted to peacekeeping operations. This assistance includes participation in the multinational forces and observers in the Sinai, in the US contribution to the United Nations forces in Cyprus, and in other programs designed specifically for peacekeeping.
US industry makes direct AECA-licensed commercial export sales to a foreign buyer. The Defense Trade Center, Department of State, establishes the US governmental control procedures.
Although it is not commonly listed as one of the seven major security assistance programs, the antiterrorism assistance program strengthens the bilateral relationship between the United States and participating countries and fosters a cooperative relationship among foreign civilian law enforcement agencies. The Department of State administers this program.
Military advisory and other security assistance personnel need a wide array of skills to handle the diverse activities encompassed in security assistance and FID operations. They need a broad educational foundation to have a better appreciation of the social systems of developing nations. Language training is essential.
A proper advisor-client relationship depends on successful intercultural communications. Advisors frequently work with counterparts from their respective cultural, educational, and military backgrounds.
An effective advisor understands his counterpart's sociological, psychological, and political make-up. Accomplishment of the advisory mission often depends more upon positive personal relationships between US advisors and host nation counterparts than upon formal agreements. Host nation leaders may not desire the assistance offered. Indeed, they may tolerate it only to obtain materiel and training assistance. Even when they accept US advice, host nation military leaders may not immediately act upon it because of internal constraints and restrictions.
The US military advisor works in support of an overall US national effort. He frequently collaborates in-country with civilian members of other US country team agencies. Many of their activities cross mutual jurisdictional boundaries. He must know the functions, responsibilities, and capabilities of the other team agencies. The specific relationship with nonmilitary country team members depends largely on the desires of the chief of the diplomatic mission.